What Is The Difference Between Checkpoint And Lazy Writer in SQL Server

Checkpoint And Lazy Writer

Now a days there is a very common question in database interviews, “Can you please tell me the difference between Checkpoint and Lazy Writer”. I have asked this question many times but always found that differences are keep on increasing as knowledge level and curiosity to know more in sql internals increases.

Every one tells these write dirty pages in disk … bla bla .. but what else I found other than this common answer

Row Checkpoint Lazy writer
1 Checkpoint is used by sql engine to keep database recovery time in check Lazy writer is used by SQL engine only to make sure there is enough memory left in sql buffer pool to accommodate new pages
2 Check point always mark entry in T-log before it executes either sql engine or manually Lazy writer doesn’t mark any entry in T-log
3 To check occurrence of checkpoint , we can use below query
select * from ::fn_dblog(null,null)
WHERE [Operation] like ‘%CKPT’
To check occurrence of lazy writer we can use performance monitor
SQL Server Buffer Manager Lazy writes/sec
4 Checkpoint only check if page is dirty or not Lazy writer clears any page from memory when it satisfies all of 3 conditions.
1.      Memory is required by any object and available memory is full
2.      Cost factor of page is zero
3.      Page is not currently reference by any connection
5 Checkpoint is affected by two parameters
1.      Checkpoint duration: is how long the checkpoint can run for.
2.      Recovery interval: affects how often it runs.
Lazy writer is affected by
1.      Memory pressure
2.      Reference counter of page in memory
6 Check point should not be very low , it can cause increasing recovery time of database No. of times lazy writer is executing per second should always be low else it will show memory pressure
7 Checkpoint will run as per defined frequency No memory pressure, no lazy writer
8 Checkpoint tries to write as many pages as fast as possible Lazy writer tries to write as few as necessary
9 checkpoint process does not put the buffer page back on the free list Lazy writer scans the buffer cache and reclaim unused pages and put it n free list
10 We can find last run entry of checkpoint in Boot page Lazy writer doesn’t update boot page
11 Checkpoint can be executed by user manually or by SQL engine Lazy writer cant be controlled by user
12 It keeps no. of dirty pages in memory to minimum It helps to reduce paging
13 Auto frequency can be controlled using recovery interval in sp_configure Works only @ memory pressure , It uses clock algorithm for cleaning buffer cache
14 It will be automatically executed before every sql statement which requires consistent view of database to perform task like (Alter, backup, checkdb, snapshot …..) It kicks pages out of memory when reference counter of page reaches to zero
15 Command : Checkpoint No command available
16 It comes in picture to find min lsn whenever t-log truncates No entry in T-log
17 Checkpoint is affected by Database recovery model Lazy writer doesn’t get impacted with recovery model of database
18 To get checkpoint entry in error log
DBCC TRACEON(3502, -1)
Not Applied
19 Members of the SYSADMIN, DB_OWNER and DB_BACKUPOPERATOR can execute checkpoint maually Not Applied

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